Do you recall the most significant lessons you were taught about the brain in elementary school?
My teacher often emphasized that it coordinates other parts of the body. It’s the same for the controller; it coordinates the electrical aspect of the dual-motor electric scooter.
One of their most important functions is coordinating the forward movement of any electric scooter. Electric scooters cannot go in reverse; they only go forward. This explains why some people call controllers electronic speed controllers (ESC).
The controller is connected to the electric scooter’s motor, throttle, brakes, sensor, and motor speed sensors to facilitate motion at any given time. While electric scooters have one controller, dual-motor electric scooters use two controllers but share the same throttle input.
Dual-motor electric scooters use two motors for motion; one at the front and the other at the rear wheel. Motors are a significant part of understanding the principle controllers work with. The controllers can’t work effectively without being linked to the motor of an electric scooter.
The controller is in a sealed metal box inside the frame/stem of your dual-motor electric scooter. Why is it in a metallic box? The metallic covering is required to conduct the heat necessary for the controllers to work optimally.
The battery supplies power for acceleration and brakes during rides. Controllers are connected to the battery to regulate the power supply. Controllers are rated in current and voltage; the higher the value, the better the controller’s performance.
There are different types of controllers depending on the motor of the electric scooter. Electric scooters either use brushed DC motors or brushless DC motors. Dual motor scooters use brushless DC motors. They are more efficient, less noisy, and energy-saving.
You have either a sine wave controller or a square wave controller for brushless DC motors. Sine-wave controllers are not compatible with every electric scooter, but square-wave controllers are compatible with any electric scooter.
Depending on the controller type, controllers’ working principles may be altered, but the concept is still the same.
Controllers work by creating an electric field between stators and rotors in a motor. For sine wave controllers and square wave controllers, the wave produced in the electromagnetic field makes the difference.
Brushless DC motors feature a rotor and a stator. As the name suggests, the rotor turns while the stator stays still. Permanent magnets are on the rotor, and three-phase electromagnetic coils are on the stator.
When electromagnets and magnets interact, the motor gets the power to accelerate/decelerate based on the control signal.
Field-Effect-Transistors are made up of stators and rotors that interact with each other to create an electric field (FET). FET turns on and off the power to the stator coils like a switch.
The interaction between these magnets works like an on/off switch. For instance, in three-phase electromagnetic coils, electromagnets 2, 5, 8, and 11 can be turned off at the same time, while electromagnets 1, 4, 7, and 10 can be “turned off.”
In the next phase, electromagnets number 1, 4, 7, and 10 would be turned on, while 2, 5, 8, and 11 would all be “turned off” simultaneously.
Brushless DC motors are either sensorless or have sensors. Sensors are attached to the rotor to tell its location at any time.
The controller receives the information about the sensor’s location (attached to the rotor) and sends desired input. Desired input could supply power to accelerate, decelerate or achieve continuous motion (cruise speed).
A sine-wave controller has a sensor and works the exact way described above. For every 60° rotation, the sensor sends a signal to the controller to supply power based on the input the controller has processed.
The wave produced from the electromagnetic interaction is sinusoidal. It is smooth all through peaks and lows. Sine-wave controllers are less noisy and more energy efficient. Electric scooters that use this controller climb steep easily and have better performance.
Square wave controllers are sensorless Brushless DC motors. As the rotor rotates, current is generated, and the current’s direction guides the controller’s action.
This explains why the interaction in their electromagnetic field produces trapezoidal waves. The overall operation of this controller makes electric scooters jerk, and it’s not smooth.
Square wave controllers are noisier and less efficient. Energy is lost because of the friction and the jerky sounds as the motor works. It’s less likely for dual-motor electric scooters to use square wave controllers because it reduces their overall performance.
Cheaper electric scooters may use square-wave controllers because they are compatible with any motor and cheap. Sine-wave controllers are more efficient and expensive. They are commonly used in pricy electric scooters.
When pressure is applied to the throttle, the controller receives the signal and provides more power through the battery to the electric scooter’s motor.
When brakes are applied, the controller receives the signal and initiates a deceleration through the motors. The battery stores energy during deceleration (provided it’s not fully charged).
Dual-motor electric scooters usually use sine wave controllers instead of square-wave controllers. Controllers not only affect the speed and performance of your dual-motor electric scooter but also determine power consumption.
Square-wave controllers consume more power, while sine-wave controllers have minimal power consumption. Controllers also control regenerative brakes in e-scooters. The power used to decelerate/halt the dual motor electric scooter is stored and used by the controller to provide a boost after deceleration.
The working principle of a controller is hinged on the interaction between the rotor, stator, electromagnetic fields, and the sensors when they are present. To do this effectively, the controller is connected to the battery, motor sensors, speed sensors, motors, throttle, and brakes of the dual-motor electric scooter.